There are three short vowels in Persian: /a, e, o/. These vowels are not alphabetically represented; they are rather represented by specific symbols technically called 'diacritics':
-َ for /a/;
-ِ for /e/;
and -ُ for /o/.
The diacritics for the short vowels cannot appear independently; they need a base - which must be a letter of the alphabet (X = any letter of the alphabet):
xَ xِ xُ
/otu/ 'electric iron'
T S Dَ L Dِ M Dُ
/dast/ 'hand' /del/ 'stomach' /dom/ 'tail'
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